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A Single Question to Examine the Prevalence and Protective Effect of Seroadaptive Strategies Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

imageBackground: Seroadaptive behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) are common, but ascertaining behavioral information is challenging in clinical settings. To address this, we developed a single seroadaptive behavior question. Methods: Men who have sex with men 18 years or older attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Seattle, WA, from 2013 to 2015, were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Respondents completed a comprehensive seroadaptive behavior questionnaire which included a single question that asked HIV-negative MSM to indicate which of 12 strategies they used in the past year to reduce their HIV risk. HIV testing was performed per routine clinical care. We used the κ statistic to examine agreement between the comprehensive questionnaire and the single question. Results: We enrolled HIV-negative MSM at 3341 (55%) of 6105 eligible visits. The agreement between the full questionnaire and single question for 5 behaviors was fair to moderate (κ values of 0.34–0.59). From the single question, the most commonly reported behaviors were as follows: avoiding sex with HIV-positive (66%) or unknown-status (52%) men and using condoms with unknown-status partners (53%); 8% of men reported no seroadaptive behavior. Men tested newly HIV positive at 38 (1.4%) of 2741 visits. HIV test positivity for the most commonly reported behaviors ranged from 0.8% to 1.3%. Men reporting no seroadaptive strategy had a significantly higher HIV test positivity (3.5%) compared with men who reported at least 1 strategy (1.3%; P = 0.02). Conclusions: The single question performed relatively well against a comprehensive seroadaptive behaviors assessment and may be useful in clinical settings to identify men at greatest risk for HIV. 11/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Use of Patient-Delivered Partner Therapy in US College Settings: Associations With Legality, Perceived Legality and Other Sexual and Reproductive Health Services

imageBackground: Young adults, including college students, have higher rates of chlamydia than the general population. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) is a partner treatment option for sex partners of individuals diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhea. We examined college health center use of PDPT in a national sample of colleges. Methods: During 2014 to 2015, we collected data from 482 colleges and universities (55% of 885 surveyed), weighting responses by institutional characteristics abstracted from a national database (eg, 2-year vs 4-year status). We asked whether the school had a student health center and which sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services were offered. We also assessed the legal and perceived legal status of PDPT in states where schools were located. We then estimated PDPT availability at student health centers and measured associations with legal status and SRH services. Results: Most colleges (n = 367) reported having a student health center; PDPT was available at 36.6% of health centers and associated with perceived legality of PDPT in the state in which the college was located (odds ratio [OR], 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–18.28). Patient-delivered partner therapy was significantly associated with availability of SRH services, including sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment of STI (56.2% vs 1.1%), gynecological services (60.3% vs 12.2%), and contraceptive services (57.8% vs 7.7%) (all P < .001). Compared with schools taking no action, PDPT was more likely to be available at schools that notified partners directly (OR, 8.29; 95% CI, 1.28–53.85), but not schools that asked patients to notify partners (OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 0.97–12.43). Conclusions: PDPT was more likely to be available in colleges that offered SRH services and where staff believed PDPT was legal. Further research could explore more precise conditions under which PDPT is used. 11/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Using the Revised Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Staging System to Classify Persons Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus in New York City, 2011–2015

imageAbstract: The proportion of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in New York City in stage 1 (CD4 ≥ 500 cells/mm3) increased from 50.6% in 2011 to 59.6% in 2015. The revised Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staging system of HIV infection is a useful tool with which to classify persons living with HIV. 11/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status Differentially Associated With Genital and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Cross-Sectional Survey

imageBackground: Little is known about human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and genotypes when considering both anatomic site and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. HIV serostatus was determined, and genital and anal HPV genotyping were performed from respective swabs. Results: Of 1155 MSM, 817 (70.7%) had testing for genital (611; 52.9%) and/or anal (671; 58.1%) HPV. Preference for insertive anal sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.75) and syphilis (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.01–2.23) were associated with genital HPV. Inconsistent condom use during receptive anal sex (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.17–2.84), and HIV seropositivity (aOR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.91–4.42) were associated with anal HPV. Among 465 (40.3%) MSM with specimens from both anatomic sites, anal HPV (68%) was more common than genital HPV (37.8%). Prevalence of anal HPV was higher among HIV-infected than uninfected MSM (P < 0.01). Some oncogenic HPV types were more commonly found at the anal site of HIV-infected MSM (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Human papillomavirus is highly prevalent among Chinese MSM. Anal HPV was more common than genital HPV, and HIV seropositivity was associated with oncogenic HPV types at the anal site. 11/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Cisgender and Transgender Women Sex Workers in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Results From a Respondent-Driven Sampling Study

imageBackground: Sex workers face a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. For cisgender women sex workers (CWSW), global HIV prevalence is over 10%, whereas transgender women sex workers (TWSW) face an HIV burden of 19% to 27%. Methods: We used respondent-driven sampling to recruit 492 sex workers, including CWSW (n = 299) and TWSW (n = 193) in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Participants completed an in-depth survey and were screened for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sample characteristics stratified by gender identity and interview site are presented. Bivariate analyses comparing CWSW and TWSW were conducted using independent samples t tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables. Results: Pooled HIV prevalence was high (11.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8–14.5), and was similar for CWSW (11.1%) and TWSW (12.4%). Rates of syphilis 25.5% (95% CI, 21.6–29.5), C. trachomatis (14.8%; 95% CI, 11.6–18.0) and N. gonorrhoeae (5.8%; 95% CI, 3.7–7.9) were also concerning. Both groups reported lifetime HIV testing (62.4%), but CWSW were less likely to have ever been HIV tested (54.5%) than TWSW (74.6%). Median time since last HIV test was 24 months. Previous screening for STI was low. Inconsistent condom use and drug use during sex work were not uncommon. Conclusions: High HIV and STI prevalence, coupled with infrequent HIV and STI screening, inconsistent condom use, and occupational drug use, underscore the need for expanded HIV and STI prevention, screening, and treatment efforts among CWSW and TWSW in Malaysia. 11/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

The Annual Economic Burden of Syphilis: An Estimation of Direct, Productivity, and Intangible Costs for Syphilis in Guangdong Initiative for Comprehensive Control of Syphilis Sites

imageBackground: Syphilis has continuously posed a great challenge to China. However, very little data existed regarding the cost of syphilis. Taking Guangdong Initiative for Comprehensive Control of Syphilis area as the research site, we aimed to comprehensively measure the annual economic burden of syphilis from a societal perspective. Methods: Newly diagnosed and follow-up outpatient cases were investigated by questionnaire. Reported tertiary syphilis cases and medical institutions cost were both collected. The direct economic burden was measured by the bottom-up approach, the productivity cost by the human capital method, and the intangible burden by the contingency valuation method. Results: Three hundred five valid early syphilis cases and 13 valid tertiary syphilis cases were collected in the investigation to estimate the personal average cost. The total economic burden of syphilis was US $729,096.85 in Guangdong Initiative for Comprehensive Control of Syphilis sites in the year of 2014, with medical institutions cost accounting for 73.23% of the total. Household average direct cost of early syphilis was US $23.74. Average hospitalization cost of tertiary syphilis was US $2,749.93. Of the cost to medical institutions, screening and testing comprised the largest proportion (26%), followed by intervention and case management (22%) and operational cost (21%). Household average productivity cost of early syphilis was US $61.19. Household intangible cost of syphilis was US $15,810.54. Conclusions: Syphilis caused a substantial economic burden on patients, their families, and society in Guangdong. Household productivity and intangible costs both shared positive relationships with local economic levels. Strengthening the prevention and effective treatment of early syphilis could greatly help to lower the economic burden of syphilis. 11/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Sexually Transmitted Disease Testing of Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: Room for Improvement

imageBackground: In the United States, sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is recommended at least annually for sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM). We evaluated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) providers’ STI testing practices and frequency of positive test results. Methods: We analyzed data from HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants who, from 2007 to 2014, completed a confidential survey about risk behaviors. Using medical records data, we assessed the frequency of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis testing and positive results during the year after the survey for MSM who reported sex without a condom in the prior 6 months. We compared testing frequency and positivity for men having 1, 2 to 3, and 4 or more sexual partners. Correlates of STI testing were assessed using general linear model to derive relative risks (RR) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Among 719 MSM, testing frequency was 74.5%, 74.3%, and 82.9% for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis, respectively, and was higher in those men who reported more sexual partners (P < 0.001 for all). In multivariable analysis, testing for gonorrhea was significantly more likely among non-Hispanic black versus white men (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03–1.33), among men seen in private versus public clinics (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05–1.28), and among men with 2 to 3 and 4 or more sexual partners versus 1 partner (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02–1.23, and RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08–1.30, respectively). Correlates of chlamydia and syphilis testing were similar. Test positivity was higher among men with more sexual partners: for gonorrhea 0.0%, 3.0%, and 6.7% for men with 1, 2 to 3, and 4 or more partners, respectively (P < 0.001, syphilis 3.7%, 3.8% and 12.5%, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Among HIV-infected MSM patients in HIV care who reported sex without a condom, subsequent testing was not documented in clinic records during the following year for up to a quarter of patients. Exploring why STI testing did not occur may improve patient care. 11/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Provider Adherence to Syphilis Testing Recommendations for Women Delivering a Stillbirth

imageObjective: To assess overall adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended guidelines for syphilis testing among women who delivered a stillbirth and compare it with other tests recommended for stillbirth evaluation. Methods: We used MarketScan claims data with 40 million commercially insured and 8 million Medicaid enrollees annually to estimate prenatal care and follow-up testing among women who had stillbirths between January 1, 2013, and December 24, 2013. Stillbirth was identified if women had any International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes related to a stillbirth outcome. Among women with stillbirths, we estimated the proportions of women who received prenatal care and prenatal syphilis testing within 280 days before stillbirth, and testing at the time of stillbirth (syphilis testing, complete blood count, placental examination and autopsy) using Physician’s Current Procedural Terminology codes. Results: We identified 3672 Medicaid-insured women and 6023 commercially insured women with stillbirths in 2013. Approximately, 61.7% of Medicaid-insured women and 66.0% of commercially insured women had claims data indicating prenatal syphilis testing. At the time of stillbirth, Medicaid-insured and commercially insured women had similar rates of syphilis testing (6.5% vs 9.3%), placental examination (61.6% vs 57.8%), and complete blood count (31.9% vs 37.6%). Autopsies were too infrequent to be reported. Approximately, 34.6% of Medicaid-insured women and 29.7% of commercially insured women had no syphilis testing either prenatally or at the time of stillbirth. Conclusions: Syphilis testing among women after stillbirth was less than 10%, illustrating limited adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommendations. Such low prenatal and delivery syphilis testing rates may impact the number of stillbirth cases identified as congenital syphilis cases and reported to the national surveillance system. Our results emphasize the need to improve syphilis testing to improve diagnosis of syphilitic stillbirths, identify women with syphilis infection, and provide treatment to these women to avoid syphilis-related adverse outcomes. 11/01/2017 01:00 AM