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Prevalence of Rectal Chlamydial and Gonococcal Infections: A Systematic Review

imageWe undertook a systematic review to examine rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) infections in women and men who have sex with men (MSM). English-language publications measuring rectal Ct or Ng prevalence using nucleic acid amplification tests were eligible. Searching multiple electronic databases, we identified 115 eligible reports published between January 2000 and November 2016. Overall, the prevalence of rectal Ct (9%) was higher than that of rectal Ng (4.7%). Rectal Ct prevalence was similar in MSM (9%) and women (9.2%), whereas rectal Ng prevalence was higher in MSM (6.1%) than in women (1.7%). Generally, rectal Ct prevalence was similar in sexually transmitted disease clinics (9.1%) and nonsexual health clinics (8.6%), whereas rectal Ng prevalence was somewhat lower in sexually transmitted disease clinics (4.5%) than in nonsexual health clinics (6%). These infections seem to be relatively common across a range of populations and clinical settings, highlighting the need for additional research on these preventable, treatable conditions. 05/01/2018 01:00 AM

Optimizing Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Men Using Self-Collected Swabs: A Systematic Review

imageBackground Sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates are increasing in the United States while funding for prevention and treatment programs has declined. Sample self-collection for STI testing in men may provide an acceptable, easy, rapid, and potentially cost-effective method for increasing diagnosis and treatment of STIs. Methods We conducted a systematic review of articles assessing self-collection of anal, oral, or genital swab samples among adult men for detection of STIs and/or human papillomavirus–related dysplasia. We searched for English-language articles in which men 18 years or older were recruited to participate. Results Our literature search resulted in 1053 citations, with 20 meeting inclusion criteria. Self-collection methods were highly sensitive and comparable with clinician collection for detection of multiple STI pathogens. However, self-collected samples were less likely to be of adequate quality for anorectal cytology and less sensitive for detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia than clinician-collected samples. Self-collection was highly acceptable. Overall, studies were small and heterogeneous and used designs providing lower levels of evidence. Conclusions Self-collection methods are a viable option for collecting samples for STI testing in adult men based on their high feasibility, acceptability, and validity. Implementation of self-collection procedures in STI testing venues should be performed to expand opportunities for STI detection and treatment. 05/01/2018 01:00 AM

The Black-White Disparity in Sexually Transmitted Diseases During Pregnancy: How Do Racial Segregation and Income Inequality Matter?

imageBackground We investigate the roles of residential racial segregation and income inequality for the black-white disparity in acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STD) during pregnancy in a multilevel framework. Methods The analytic sample consisted of non-Hispanic white (n = 79,271) and non-Hispanic black (n = 17,669) mothers from 2012 population birth data from Pennsylvania. We used the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey for neighborhood characteristics of mothers; we used multilevel models. Results First, neighborhood-level factors are important for understanding this disparity because racial segregation and income inequality are significantly associated with acquiring STD during pregnancy, regardless of race. Second, racial segregation moderates the relationships between race/ethnicity and the acquisition of STD during pregnancy. White mothers are more vulnerable to neighborhood segregation than black mothers, and black mothers are less likely to acquire STD during pregnancy than white mothers if they reside with co-ethnics. Third, mothers residing in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods—as indicated by both absolute and relative measures of income inequality—have the highest odds of acquiring STD during pregnancy, regardless of race. Conclusions Neighborhood-level segregation and income inequality are important for understanding the acquisition of STDs during pregnancy. Our findings have important implications for future research and for place-specific prevention and intervention to reduce the racial disparity in STD during pregnancy. 05/01/2018 01:00 AM

Extragenital Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: Missed Treatment Opportunities for Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men?

imageObjectives This study of young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) assessed the prevalence of extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea among those testing negative for urethral infections, and compared prevalence of both by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. Methods A convenience sample of 609 YBMSM was recruited for a cross-sectional study from 2 sexual health clinics located in Jackson, MS. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), nucleic acid amplification testing was performed on urine, rectal swabs, and oral swabs. OraSure was used to detect HIV. Results Seventy-three percent of all chlamydia infections and 77% of gonorrhea infections were found from anal and oral swabs in the absence of urethral positivity. Compared with HIV-uninfected men, HIV-infected men were significantly more likely to have pharyngeal chlamydia (P = 0.03), multiple CT infections (P = 0.02), rectal NG (P < 0.001), multiple NG infections (P = 0.04), both CT/NG rectal infections (P = 0.001). Conclusions As much as three quarters of all chlamydia and gonorrhea infections may be missed when only urine-based nucleic acid amplification testing is used to screen YBMSM for bacterial sexually transmitted infections. These missed opportunities for diagnosis may be particularly likely among HIV-infected YBMSM. 05/01/2018 01:00 AM

Molecular Characterization of Markers Associated With Antimicrobial Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Identified From Residual Clinical Samples

imageBackground The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is a major public health concern. In the era of nucleic acid amplifications tests, rapid and accurate molecular approaches are needed to help increase surveillance, guide antimicrobial stewardship, and prevent outbreaks. Methods Residual urethral swabs, collected prospectively in the Baltimore City Health Department during a 6-month period, were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for NG DNA and AMR determinants to fluoroquinolones, penicillin, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Results N. gonorrhoeae DNA was detected in 34.8% (73/210) of samples, including 67.3% (68/101) of the swabs that had been previously identified as NG positive by culture. Markers associated with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones were detected in 22.4% of the polymerase chain reaction NG-positive samples. The rate of penicillinase-producing NG was very low (1.6%), and no markers associated with decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins were detected in this cohort of men using the AMR assays herein described. Conclusions Detection of molecular markers associated with AMR in NG can be performed directly from residual clinical samples, although the recovery rate of adequate DNA for molecular testing from these samples can be suboptimal. A high number of samples with mutations associated with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones were identified. 05/01/2018 01:00 AM

Time to Develop Standardized Molecular Diagnostics for the Simultaneous Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Its Antimicrobial Resistance

No abstract available 05/01/2018 01:00 AM

A Population-Based Study to Compare Treatment Outcomes Among Women With Urogenital Chlamydial Infection in Washington State, 1992 to 2015

imageBackground United States guidelines recommend azithromycin or doxycycline for chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis [CT]) treatment. These therapies are similarly efficacious for urogenital infections when outcomes are measured 7 to 42 days after treatment, although doxycycline may be superior for rectal infections. Some investigators have suggested that persistent rectal infections may lead to autoinfection of the urogenital tract, potentially resulting in higher rates of recurrent infection in azithromycin-treated women. Methods We used Washington State surveillance data to identify women 14 years or older with urogenital CT (1992–2015) treated with azithromycin or doxycycline. We defined persistent/recurrent CT as a repeat positive CT test result 14 to 180 days after treatment of the initial infection. We used log binomial regression to estimate the adjusted relative risk (aRR) of persistent/recurrent infection associated with treatment with azithromycin versus doxycycline. Results From 1992 to 2015, there were 268,596 reported cases of urogenital CT, including 168,301 (63%) who received azithromycin and 66,432 (25%) who received doxycycline. The risk of persistent/recurrent urogenital CT was 6.7% and 4.7% in azithromycin- and doxycycline-treated cases, respectively (P < 0.001). Adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, year, pregnancy status, jurisdiction reporting, reason for examination, and gonorrhea coinfection, azithromycin-treated women were significantly more likely to have persistent/recurrent urogenital CT than doxycycline-treated women (aRR, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–1.30). Adjusting the retesting window to 21 to 180 days (aRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.19–1.30) and 28 to 180 days (aRR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.19–1.30) did not alter our primary findings. Conclusions Persistent/recurrent urogenital CT may be more common among women treated with azithromycin than with doxycycline. The reason for this difference is uncertain and is an important area of future investigation. 05/01/2018 01:00 AM

Chemsex Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: a Sexualized Drug Use Survey Among Clients of the Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic and Users of a Gay Dating App in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

imageObjectives Chemsex (i.e., drug use during sex) is practiced by some men who have sex with men (MSM) and is associated with high-risk behavior. In a cross-sectional study at the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic of Amsterdam, we explored chemsex practices, risk behavior, and STI prevalence. Method A survey on chemsex (γ-hydroxybutyrate, crystal methamphetamine, and/or mephedrone) was offered to clinic clients during routine STI screening and to Amsterdam users of a gay online dating app. Associations were assed using χ2 test and multivariable regression. Results Chemsex in the past 6 months was practiced by 866 (17.6%) of 4925 MSM clients and by 159 (1.5%) of 10857 non-MSM clients. Among gay dating app users, the proportion that reported chemsex engagement was higher than among MSM visiting the STI clinic (29.3% [537/1832] vs. 17.6%; P < 0.001). Chemsex was a significant risk factor for bacterial STI in HIV-negative MSM visiting the STI clinic (adjusted odd ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–1.8), but not in HIV-positive MSM. A majority practiced chemsex once a month or less, and 87.0% reported sex without drug use in the past month. Conclusions In Amsterdam, chemsex is frequently practiced and significantly associated with bacterial STI in HIV-negative MSM but not in HIV-positive MSM. Future prevention strategies to reduce STI incidence should especially target HIV-negative MSM engaging in chemsex. 05/01/2018 01:00 AM