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Antimicrobial Susceptibility Evaluation and Multiple-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates in China in 2012

imageObjective: This study aimed to gain information on the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiological typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) isolates in China in 2012. Methods: A total of 244 NG isolates were consecutively recovered from patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in 3 Chinese cities—Guangzhou, Nanjing, and Tianjin—in 2012. Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibilities to penicillin and tetracycline were examined by detecting penicillinase-producing NG (PPNG) and high-level tetracycline-resistant NG, and NG susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, and cefixime were determined using an agar dilution method. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were typed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis. We conducted a χ2 analysis to compare clusters with Bonferroni correction and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates gathered from the 3 cities differed significantly in the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant NG (P < 0.001) and NG treated with ceftriaxone with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.125 mg/L or higher (P < 0.001). The analysis of the combination of the 7 variable number of tandem repeats loci for all of the 244 isolates yielded 110 multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis types falling into 5 clusters. Cluster III was associated with PPNG, whereas cluster II was associated with non-PPNG (P < 0.05) and NG treated with ceftriaxone with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.125 mg/L or higher (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Antimicrobials that can be used with confidence to treat NG infection currently in China include ceftriaxone and spectinomycin, but not penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and cefixime. Moreover, some of the resulting clusters were associated with PPNG and NG with decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility. 04/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae—What Do We Really Need to Know to Guide Public Health Interventions?

No abstract available 04/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Haemophilus influenzae Isolated From Men With Acute Urethritis: Its Pathogenic Roles, Responses to Antimicrobial Chemotherapies, and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities

imageBackground: There have been few comprehensive studies on Haemophilus influenza–positive urethritis. Methods: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 68 men with H. influenzae–positive urethritis, including coinfections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and/or genital mycoplasmas: 2, 3, 20, and 43 treated with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, and extended-release azithromycin (azithromycin-SR), respectively. We assessed microbiological outcomes in 54 men and clinical outcomes in 46 with H. influenzae–positive monomicrobial nongonococcal urethritis. We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 6 antimicrobial agents for 59 pretreatment isolates. Results: H. influenzae was eradicated from the men treated with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, or sitafloxacin. The eradication rate with azithromycin-SR was 85.3%. The disappearance or alleviation of urethritis symptoms and the decreases in leukocyte counts in first-voided urine were significantly associated with the eradication of H. influenzae after treatment. For the isolates, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline MICs were ≤0.008–0.25, 0.008–0.5, 0.001–0.008, 0.12–1, 0.25–16, and 0.25–2 μg/mL, respectively. The azithromycin MICs for 3 of 4 strains persisting after azithromycin-SR administration were 1 μg/mL. H. influenzae with an azithromycin MIC of 1 μg/mL increased chronologically. Conclusions: H. influenzae showed good responses to the chemotherapies for urethritis. The significant associations of the clinical outcomes of the chemotherapies with their microbiological outcomes suggested that H. influenzae could play pathogenic roles in urethritis. All isolates, except for one with decreased susceptibility to tetracyclines, were susceptible to the examined agents. However, the increase in H. influenzae with an azithromycin MIC of 1 μg/mL might threaten efficacies of azithromycin regimens on H. influenzae–positive urethritis. 04/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Point-of-Care Sexually Transmitted Infection Diagnostics: Proceedings of the STAR Sexually Transmitted Infection—Clinical Trial Group Programmatic Meeting

Abstract: The goal of the point-of-care (POC) sexually transmitted infection (STI) Diagnostics meeting was to review the state-of-the-art research and develop recommendations for the use of POC STI diagnostics. Experts from academia, government, nonprofit, and industry discussed POC diagnostics for STIs such as Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Treponema pallidum. Key objectives included a review of current and emerging technologies, clinical and public health benefits, POC STI diagnostics in developing countries, regulatory considerations, and future areas of development. Key points of the meeting are as follows: (i) although some rapid point-of-care tests are affordable, sensitive, specific, easy to perform, and deliverable to those who need them for select sexually transmitted infections, implementation barriers exist at the device, patient, provider, and health system levels; (ii) further investment in research and development of point-of-care tests for sexually transmitted infections is needed, and new technologies can be used to improve diagnostic testing, test uptake, and treatment; (iii) efficient deployment of self-testing in supervised (ie, pharmacies, clinics, and so on) and/or unsupervised (ie, home, offices, and so on) settings could facilitate more screening and diagnosis that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections; (iv) development of novel diagnostic technologies has outpaced the generation of guidance tools and documents issued by regulatory agencies; and (v) questions regarding quality management are emerging including the mechanism by which poor-performing diagnostics are removed from the market and quality assurance of self-testing is ensured. 04/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Suboptimal Prenatal Syphilis Testing Among Commercially Insured Women in the United States, 2013

imageAbstract: United States surveillance data demonstrate that congenital syphilis cases are increasing. We performed an analysis of commercially insured pregnant females using MarketSan to determine syphilis screening rates at different prenatal stages; 85% of pregnant women in this population had a syphilis test performed at least once during the prenatal period. 04/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Geospatial Planning and the Resulting Economic Impact of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction in Mozambique

imageBackground: Research has shown that the distance to the nearest immunization location can ultimately prevent someone from getting immunized. With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine throughout the world, a major question is whether the target populations can readily access immunization. Methods: In anticipation of HPV vaccine introduction in Mozambique, a country with a 2015 population of 25,727,911, our team developed Strategic Integrated Geo-temporal Mapping Application) to determine the potential economic impact of HPV immunization. We quantified how many people in the target population are reachable by the 1377 existing immunization locations, how many cannot access these locations, and the potential costs and disease burden averted by immunization. Results: If the entire 2015 cohort of 10-year-old girls goes without HPV immunization, approximately 125 (111–139) new cases of HPV 16,18-related cervical cancer are expected in the future. If each health center covers a catchment area with a 5-km radius (ie, if people travel up to 5 km to obtain vaccines), then 40% of the target population could be reached to prevent 50 (44–55) cases, 178 (159–198) disability-adjusted life years, and US $202,854 (US $140,758–323,693) in health care costs and lost productivity. At higher catchment area radii, additional increases in catchment area radius raise population coverage with diminishing returns. Conclusions: Much of the population in Mozambique is unable to reach any existing immunization location, thereby reducing the potential impact of HPV vaccine. The geospatial information system analysis can assist in planning vaccine introduction strategies to maximize access and help the population reap the maximum benefits from an immunization program. 04/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Emerging Regional and Racial Disparities in the Lifetime Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Men who Have Sex With Men: A Comparative Life Table Analysis in King County, WA and Mississippi

imageBackground: Little is known about the lifetime risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis among US men who have sex with men (MSM), trends in risk and how risk varies between populations. Methods: We used census and HIV surveillance data to construct life tables to estimate the cumulative risk of HIV diagnosis among cohorts of MSM born 1940 to 1994 in King County, Washington (KC) and Mississippi (MS). Results: The cumulative risk of HIV diagnosis progressed in 3 phases. In phase 1, risk increased among MSM in successive cohorts born 1940 to 1964. Among men born 1955 to 1965 (the peak risk cohort), by age 55 years, 45% of white KC MSM, 65% of black KC MSM, 22% of white MS MSM, and 51% of black MS MSM had been diagnosed with HIV. In phase 2, men born 1965 to 1984, risk of diagnosis among KC MSM declined almost 60% relative to the peak risk cohort. A similar pattern of decline occurred in white MS MSM, with a somewhat smaller decline observed in black MS MSM. In phase 3, men born 1985 to 1994, the pattern of risk diverged. Among white KC MSM, black KC MSM, and white MS MSM, HIV risk increased slightly compared with men born 1975 to 1984, with 6%, 14%, and 2% diagnosed by age 27 years, respectively. Among black MS MSM born 1985 to 1994, HIV risk rose dramatically, with 35% HIV diagnosed by age 27 years. Conclusions: The lifetime risk of HIV diagnosis has substantially declined among MSM in KC and among white MSM in MS, but is rising dramatically among black MSM in MS. 04/01/2017 01:00 AM
 

Benefits and Potential Harms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Self-Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: An Implementation Perspective

imageBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing (HIVST) holds great promise for reaching high-risk key populations who do not access facility-based services. We sought to characterize unsupervised HIVST implementation among men who have sex with men in China. Methods: We conducted a nationwide online survey in China. Eligible men were at least 16 years, had anal sex with a man, and had recent condomless sex. We assessed benefits (first-time testing, increased testing frequency, confirmatory testing) and potential harms (coercion, violence, suicidality) of HIVST. Among men who have sex with men who reported ever testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we identified correlates of HIVST as first-time HIV test being a self-test using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Among 1610 men who met the eligibility criteria and started the survey, 1189 (74%) completed it. Three hundred forty-one (29%) of 1189 reported ever self-testing for HIV. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence was 7% (24/341) among self-testers and 5% (15/306) among non–self-testers. Two hundred (59%) of 341 men who self-tested reported HIVST as a first-time HIV test. Thirty-one (9%) men experienced coercion with HIVST. Thirty-one (78%) of 40 men with positive HIV self-tests sought confirmation. Multivariable analysis revealed that HIVST as first-time HIV test was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92–0.99), not being “out” (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.60–3.28), not using the internet to meet sex partners (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22–0.69), and group sex (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02–2.9). Conclusions: Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing reached high-risk individuals that had never received facility-based testing. Further implementation research is needed to better understand HIVST outside of research programs. 04/01/2017 01:00 AM